Estimation of protein requirements in Indian pregnant women using a whole-body potassium counter

Authors : Kuriyan R, Naqvi S, Bhat KG, Thomas T, Thomas A, George S, Nagarajarao SC, Sachdev HS, Preston T, Kurpad AV

Publication Year : 2019

Abstract :

BACKGROUND:
The 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU recommendation for the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of additional protein during pregnancy for a gestational weight gain (GWG) of 12 kg (recalculated from a GWG of 13.8 kg) is 6.7 and 21.7 g.d-1 in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively.  This EAR is based on measurements of potassium accretion in high-income country (HIC) pregnant women. It is not known if low to middle income country (LMIC), but well-nourished, pregnant women have comparable requirements.   

OBJECTIVE:
To estimate total body potassium (TBK) accretion during pregnancy in Indian pregnant women, using a whole-body potassium counter (WBKC), to measure their additional protein EAR.

DESIGN:
Well-nourished pregnant women (20-40 years, n = 38, middle socioeconomic stratum) were recruited in the first trimester of pregnancy. Anthropometric, dietary and physical activity measurements, and measurements of TBK using a WBKC, were performed at each trimester and at birth. 

RESULTS:
The mid-trimester weight gain was 2.7 kg and 8.0 kg in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, for an average 37 week GWG of 10.7 kg and a mean birth weight of 3.0 kg.  Protein accretion was 2.7 and 5.7 g.d-1, for an EAR of 8.2 and 18.9 g.d-1 in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, respectively. The additional protein EAR calculated for a GWG of 12 kg, was 9.1 and 21.2 g.d-1 in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:
The additional protein requirements of well-nourished Indian pregnant women for a GWG of 12 kg in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters were similar to the recalculated 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU requirements for 12 kg. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30982859