True ileal digestibility of legumes determined by dual-isotope tracer method in Indian adults

Authors : Kashyap S, Varkey A, Shivakumar N, Devi S, Reddy B H R, Thomas T, Preston T, Sreeman S, Kurpad AV

Publication Year : 2019

Abstract :

BACKGROUND:
Good-quality plant protein sources are important for protein adequacy in a balanced diet. Legumes are known to be a source of good quality plant protein, but the true ileal digestibility of indispensable amino acids (IAAs) of commonly consumed legumes is not known in humans.

OBJECTIVES:
In this study we measured the true ileal IAA digestibility of 2H-intrinsically labeled chickpea, yellow pea, and mung bean (hulled and dehulled) protein, using the dual-isotope tracer technique referenced to a standard protein ([U-13C] spirulina). The study also aimed to validate the use of [U-13C] spirulina as a reference protein in this method.

METHODS:
2H-intrinsically labeled legumes, obtained by watering plants with deuterium oxide (2H2O), were administered in a plateau feeding method to healthy Indian adults to measure their true ileal IAA digestibility with the dual-isotope tracer technique, using [U-13C] spirulina protein or a 13C-algal IAA mixture as the standard.

RESULT:
The true ileal IAA digestibilities (mean ± SD) of chickpea, yellow pea, and mung bean were 74.6 ± 0.8%, 71.6 ± 1.3%, and 63.2 ± 1.5%, respectively. The true mean ileal IAA digestibility of mung bean when referenced to [U-13C] spirulina protein or a 13C-algal IAA mixture did not differ significantly (63.2 ± 1.5% versus 64.0 ± 2.4%, P > 0.05). The true ileal IAA digestibility of mung bean improved to 70.9 ± 2.1% after dehulling.

CONCLUSIONS:
The true mean ileal IAA digestibility of legumes in healthy Indian adults was lower than expected. Traditional processing techniques such as dehulling improve protein digestibility by about 8%.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31374575