Authors : Sambashivaiah S, Harridge SDR, Sharma N, Selvam S, Rohatgi P, Kurpad AV
Publication Year : 2019
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a major concern among Asian Indians, not least because many develop T2D at despite having a normal BMI (body mass index), and with relatively low body fat. Asian Indians are also generally considered to have relatively low skeletal muscle mass and strength, this has not been explored in the context of T2D.
The present study aimed to compare skeletal muscle mass, function and contractile quality (strength/mass) between healthy controls, those with prediabetes (PD) as well as T2D middle-aged non-obese Asian Indians. Methods: Adult males between the age of 20-50 years, consisting of healthy controls (n = 44), PD (n = 125) and T2D (n = 55) were studied. Skeletal muscle mass was measured using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Isometric and dynamic muscle function was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer (at 0, 60, 120, 180 degree/s). Muscle contractile quality was derived by dividing the peak muscle torque with the respective LMM (lower limb muscle mass). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin were used to derive insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).
The control group was on average 10 years younger than the other two groups (p less than 0.01). The LMM was similar across the three study groups. However, the age-adjusted mean muscle torque was significantly lower in both absolute and normalized isometric and isokinetic strength in PD and T2D groups compared to controls (p less than or equal to 0.01), with the difference persisting even after adjusting for age and other covariates. However, there was no difference in muscle strength and contractile quality between the PD and T2D study groups.
Muscle strength and contractile quality would appear to be sensitive and early indices of the trajectory toward diabetes in Asian Indians and more so than skeletal muscle mass. It is thus important to recognize the importance of functional measurements among this population when considering the role of muscle in diabetes. The data also would suggest that specific muscle conditioning (e.g., resistance training) might have efficacy in improving function as well as muscle mass, and thus aiding in the prevention of the trajectory toward the development of T2D.