Cystic Neutrophilic Granulomatous Mastitis: A Clinicopathological Study With 16s rRNA Sequencing for the Detection of Corynebacteria in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue

Authors : Naik MA, Korlimarla A, Shetty ST, Fernandes AM, Pai SA

Publication Year : 2019

Abstract :

Cystic neutrophilic granulomatous mastitis (CNGM) is a histologically characterized variant of granulomatous lobular mastitis that is associated with lipophilic Corynebacterium species. It remains a largely underrecognized entity in India. Our aim was to study CNGM in the Asian Indian population and explore if 16s rRNA sequencing could be used on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue to identify the causative organism. We studied 24 cases with histological features of CNGM with hematoxylin and eosin, Gram, Ziehl-Neelsen, and Periodic acid-Schiff stains. Tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction and 16s rRNA gene sequencing on DNA extracted from FFPE was attempted (N = 23). Gram-positive bacilli were seen in 20/24 cases. Routine culture with prolonged incubation yielded Corynebacterium species in 8 cases; 7 of these cases were evaluated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for species identification. C matruchotti was identified in one case by BD Phoenix. MALDI-TOF MS identified the remaining 7 cases as C kroppenstedtii (N = 4) and C tuberculostearicum (N = 2), with no identification in one. Corynebacteria were identified by 16s rRNA sequencing on DNA extracted from FFPE in 12/23 cases using a primer targeting the V5-V6 region that was found to be more conserved in Corynebacterium species. All cases were negative for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. CNGM can be identified by routine stains. Culture using routine media with prolonged incubation is often adequate to isolate the organism. 16s rRNA sequencing on DNA extracted from FFPE tissue can help make an etiological diagnosis in some cases where only paraffin blocks are available.