Awareness of the Use of Standard Precautions during Care of People Living with HIV by Ward Attendants in Indian Hospitals

Authors : Ryan Fernandez, Tony D. S. Raj, Elsa Heylen, Laura Nyblade,2 Dhinagaran Devadass, Krishnamachari Srinivasan, and Maria L. Ekstrand.

Publication Year : 2022

Abstract :

doi: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_1339_21



Standard precautions (SP) are infection prevention practices universally used during patient care to lower infection transmission.


The aim of the study was to (1) assess Indian ward attendants' (WAs) knowledge, perceived efficacy, and self-efficacy regarding SP and (2) examine correlates of SP self-efficacy and intent to use unnecessary precautions during care of people living with HIV.

Subjects and Methods:

Data are sourced from a face-to-face baseline survey of a stigma-reduction trial among 1859 WAs from Indian hospitals. Percentages were used to describe categorical variables means and standard deviations for continuous variables. Multiple regressions examined associations between measures.


WAs who had heard of SP had 44% higher odds of confidently using SP than those who had not heard of them. Those aware of universal SP use were 43% more likely to feel confident in using SP but also reported greater intent to use unnecessary precautions.


Hospitals could implement SP training for WAs, as their knowledge of universal use was lacking.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, standard precaution, ward attendants